Current Medicine Research and Practice

LETTER TO EDITOR
Year
: 2021  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 201--202

Study for reducing the asymptomatic cases of COVID-19 and treatment at initial level of its infections


Madhusudan Painuly, Ravi Pratap Singh 
 Department of Industrial and Production Engineering, Dr. B R Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, Punjab, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ravi Pratap Singh
Department of Industrial and Production Engineering, Dr. B R Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, Punjab
India




How to cite this article:
Painuly M, Singh RP. Study for reducing the asymptomatic cases of COVID-19 and treatment at initial level of its infections.Curr Med Res Pract 2021;11:201-202


How to cite this URL:
Painuly M, Singh RP. Study for reducing the asymptomatic cases of COVID-19 and treatment at initial level of its infections. Curr Med Res Pract [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Oct 23 ];11:201-202
Available from: http://www.cmrpjournal.org/text.asp?2021/11/4/201/324259


Full Text



Dear Editor,

The whole world is suffering from pandemic coronavirus (COVID-19). The virus is destroying the antibody of human. To fight with COVID-19, we require high immunity. The main problem of this disease is its higher rate of multiplication and the persons without any symptoms (asymptomatic). We need our immune system to quickly detect the COVID-19 attack and at the same time to produce antibody at its initial level.

According to medical science, human antibodies are classified into five isotypes, which are immunoglobulin (Ig) M, IgE IgD, IgG and IgA. Each isotype has different characteristics and role. IgG accounts for 70%–75% of human Igs (antibodies). According to studies, the infection produces two types of antibodies: IgM and IgG. IgM is produced within 2–3 days to 1st week of infection and after 2 weeks, IgM is reduced and replaced by IgG. Initial infection can be eliminated by IgM, depending on the type of infection and its multiplications. IgG has a long life span and also depends on the infectious agent involved, it can offer variation in duration of immunity.

Rapid antibody tests can also play a role in determining the degree of 'herd immunity' in a population. Antibody tests can be used to gauge the extent of infection in a community or a large group of people who may have had exposure to the virus. Much like rapid-test kits, pregnancy detection kits change colour when particular molecules are detected but problem with asymptomatic persons.

Current research expects herd immunity to have been achieved when 55%–80% of the population has been infected – only careful serological surveys can establish that. Studies in India too have shown that for every symptomatic positive, there are two asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic (those who do not visibly manifest the disease). Thus, antibody tests could also be used for such estimates in India and government plans, involved using a combination of both real-time polymerase chain reaction and antibody tests to establish infection levels.[1]

A recent study in Nature Medicine brings much-needed clarity, along with renewed enthusiasm, to efforts to develop and implement wide-scale antibody testing for SARS-CoV-2.[2] Antibodies are blood proteins produced by the immune system to fight foreign invaders like viruses, and may help to ward off future attacks by those same invaders.

In their study of blood drawn from 285 people hospitalised with severe COVID-19, researchers in China, led by Ai-Long Huang, Chongqing Medical University, found that all had developed SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies within 2–3 weeks of their first symptoms. Although more follow-up work is needed to determine just how protective these antibodies are and for how long, these findings suggest that the immune systems of people who survive COVID-19 have been primed to recognise SARS-CoV-2 and possibly thwart a second infection.

Specifically, the researchers determined that nearly all of the 285 patients studied produced a type of antibody called IgM, which is the first antibody that the body makes when fighting an infection. Although only about 40% produced IgM in the 1st week after onset of COVID-19, that number increased steadily to almost 95% 2 weeks later. All of these patients also produced a type of antibody called IgG. While IgG often appears a little later after acute infection, it has the potential to confer sustained immunity.

Hence, it is necessary that our immune system response should be quick for the virus infection. Generation of IgM antibody should be quick as the infection starts in human body.

Eosinophilia represents an increased number of eosinophils in the tissues and/or blood. Although enumeration of tissue eosinophil numbers would require examination of biopsied tissues, blood eosinophil numbers are more readily and routinely measured. Hence, eosinophilia is often recognised based on an elevation of eosinophils in the blood. Absolute eosinophil counts exceeding 450–550 cells/mL, depending on laboratory standards, are reported as elevated. Percentages generally above 5% of the differential are regarded as elevated in most institutions, although the absolute count should be calculated before a determination of eosinophilia is made. This is done by multiplying the total white cell count by the percentage of eosinophils. Eosinophils are bone marrow-derived cells of the granulocyte lineage. They have an approximate half-life of 8–18 h in the bloodstream, and mostly reside in tissues[3] where they can persist for at least several weeks. Their functional roles are multifaceted and include antigen presentation; the release of lipid-derived, peptide and cytokine mediators for acute and chronic inflammation; responses to helminth and parasite clearance through degranulation and ongoing homeostatic immune responses.

So by increasing the percentage of eosinophil in the whole population, we would be safe from asymptomatic persons. Increased percentage of eosinophil will show the symptom from the 1st h of the infection or it may be from 1st min of infection. Due to the eosinophil's moderate level, quickly body will generate the IgM antibody, which may destroy the multiplication of virus and the person may be self-recovered within 2–3 days of virus infection.

For the treatment of COVID-19, we can make an antidote which will increase the percentage of eosinophil in blood and which stimulate the formation of antibody (IgM and IgG) after the virus infection. Most of the population will be self-recovered from the infection of COVID-19, by quick formation of antibody. The use of antidote will reduce the number of asymptomatic persons and will play a key role in detecting the virus in its initial stage. The tests performed by using the rapid kit (antibody based) are cost-effective and will confirm the infection within few minutes.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

References

1Available from: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/covid-19-the-tests-reveal-all/article31457890.ece. [Last accessed on 2020 Dec 15].
2Long QX, Liu BZ, Deng HJ, Wu GC, Deng K, Chen YK, et al. Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in patients with COVID-19. Nat Med 2020;26:845-8.
3Kovalszki A, Sheikh J, Weller PF. Eosinophils and eosinophilia. In: Rich RR, editor. Clinical Immunology Principles and Practice. 4th ed. London: Elsevier Saunders; 2013. p. 298-309.