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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 50-54

Evolving epidemiology and chemical analysis of urinary stones: A retrospective analysis

Department of Biochemistry, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Seema Bhargava
Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/cmrp.cmrp_91_22

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Background: Renal stones are a painful urological disorder resulting from the combined influence of epidemiological, biochemical and genetic risk factors. A high recurrence risk has been reported for renal stones, and 0.6%–3.2% cases may progress to end stage renal disease. Modern lifestyle, sedentary habits and unhealthy dietary practices are primary promoters of the stone boom in this millennium. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the percentage of the stone type according to chemical composition and their association with epidemiological factors like sex and age. A retrospective analysis of the chemical composition of the stone samples received was done. Material and Methods: Stones samples were processed by Stone Analysis Set (BIOLABO S A, France). Qualitative chemical analysis was done for calcium, phosphorus, ammonium ion, oxalate, cystine, magnesium, carbonate and uric acid. Results: Type of renal stone and its incidence with age and sex have been evaluated. The total number of patients reporting to the hospital with renal stones was 123. Of these, 69.11% were male and 30.89% were female, with a male to female ratio of 2.23:1. The maximum occurrence was in the third and fourth decade of life. On analysis, 72.35% of total stones comprised calcium oxalate and 23.57% of nonoxalate (phosphate, magnesium, carbonate, ammonium ion) stones, whereas uric acid was positive in 4.06%. Conclusion: The occurrence of renal stones according to epidemiological factors such as age and sex in our study are similar to those reported in studies from developed countries. The data on urinary stones indicate that 98% were located in the upper urinary tract. Oxalate stones represent the main form of urolithiasis, affecting males more than females. The most important cause studied for renal stone formation is metabolic disturbances, but the genetic factors associated with the occurrence and recurrence of stone and mineral homeostasis of ions in kidney of stone formers should be further evaluated.

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